At the turn of the century, Gustave Le Bon launched his famous slogan, “We are entering the age of the masses.” What happened at the beginning of this century was only the realization of the French thinker’s prophecy. Let us bear in mind that when we speak of the protests in the Maghreb we speak of a geographical area rather than a unit Similar to these protests, which took different curves and paths, according to each country from Tunisia to Libya and from Algeria to Mauritania or Morocco, within the framework of what we can call the first gift of the Arab spring and also started with the revolution Jasmine in Tunisia, the protest movements in Mauritania between 2011 and 2018 Until the movement of 20 February in Morocco and Sarat drama dramatized by the uprisings of Libyans against Gaddafi, or with the second wave of the Arab Spring as embodied by the excellence of civil protest in Algeria today ..
Revolution, uprising, Arab spring, coup, movement, protest .. Tell me how to call things, I tell you who you are. Is this disorder in the description of what happened in the Maghreb region at the beginning of this century? In the oven reality, or is the mystery of what is happening and the complexity and differentiation of what we used to work as concepts and perceptions, is the reason for this conceptual disorder?
I tend to consider what has happened in the Maghreb countries and its interactions are still there. It is a social protest. It is a momentum in terms of the quality and intensity of the participants and the breadth of its ranks and the social groups that were involved with it. Regardless of the trends that have ended or the paths of these protests in each country, the psychological condition united the protest groups in the goals, demands, means and slogans .. The convergence of youth and middle classes is what gave the movements of protest Maghreb The identity and the form of fuel .. must monitor the protesters and characteristics of components and wide as a bloc taken from the occupation of public space arena for action, and became a street area of conflict resolution and the demands and the expression of identities and symbols of new boldly unprecedented with a strong and exceptional public momentum which contributed to the new media.
The first thing that strikes us is that all these social protests have been launched from the social media, which has widened the circle of protesters, to remember the words of Gustav Le Bon: “We live in the era of the masses.” Therefore, these protest movements, whether class, social, sectoral, Regional or major leaders have a long struggle with power, experienced prisons and suffered the bitterness of exile, oppression and torture, or have a deep political composition, but produced dramatic symbols closer to the tragic heroes such as Bouazizi in Tunisia and Zafzafi and Osama back in Morocco .. These symbols are young Of the middle classes They have an average level of composition, and their appearance was characterized by suddenness, speed and spontaneity.
The protestors or the leaders of the protests became women and men at the level of the act or in the media coverage of the protests. The masculinity is no longer predominant and predominant, and these protest movements, especially in Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, were characterized by allowing ethnic, linguistic and sectarian identities to express themselves side by side. (Salafi, Sufi, nationalist, Amazigh, liberal, communist …).
What characterized the Maghreb protest movements that we are still living in is the role of the new media, which has become a tool for mobilizing the public and mobilizing, and has become a country without borders or customs, allowing greater freedom and characterized by speed, boldness, effectiveness and ease of use … The flow of information, a flood of news and information accompanied by these protests and the power of interaction with them, has given the mass media a deep sense of youth freedom and individuality, but also assigned groups that allow them to communicate and interact, the recipient is no longer just passive passive, waiting for the newspaper or party publication To inform him of what is happening, or the advent of the official political or trade union or opposition to radio or television to provide him with his share of information adapted or directed, and no longer need the party leader, which holds mass rallies surrendered to the charm of his words and the strength of his rhetoric and daring speech and the intensity of information that pushes him to Jinan Al-Naim surrenders to sleep in its honey and lazes the leadership of the political leader. Facebook, Twitter, YouTube and the smart media allowed the public to have its own communication, expressions, symbols, generosity and creativity. The edge of the citizen, and contributed to the liberation holding tongues and expand freedom of expression Throughput and audacity is typical and sometimes shocking … We have followed in Morocco, the sweeping torrent of information that the owner of the famous boycott campaign.
The protest movements in the Maghreb region came under the influence of a new actor called the masses to the hour of political and social action, a qualitative actor who broke the myth of the elite. The protesters are the general population. Demographic development and the spread of education despite its damage. The development of the digital media contributed to overcoming the traditional means of socialization A university, a mosque, a family, a party, a union and a traditional media …), so a lot of people wonder about the role of the elite and nostalgia for the intellectual Gharashi, in front of the flood of the masses crawling strongly to the arena of action to express themselves and regain their tongue and create their language and symbols themselves, to It is the public place in the sense defined by Hannah Arendt, or in the elitist sense that Habermas gave him. The public / the public occupied the street that was confined to the elite or the elite, those in the bosom of partisan and unionist groups or institutions or among civil society, The participants are psychologically engaged in the goals and aspirations of those who are united in slogans bearing the same symbols, who are dominantly framed in the party, union or association headquarters or directed by school curricula, mosques, television and radio.
The new media allowed the awakening of the masses and their restoration to the public space, hence the deviations of the elite. We all followed how the football stadiums turned from a football field to a platform for protesting and broadcasting messages. The song “Fbladi Zalmouni” exceeded the national borders and was raised in Algeria, Tunisia and abroad. The Maghreb is a sign of this transformation. Can the danger to democracy come from sweeping these crowds to the hours of the political act? We are in the middle of the laboratory. We do not know what happened and what is going on in history. We saw the dramatic tragedies in which Libya sank. Inbalg b It is not possible to describe the talk and work on it to try to understand it only in the press coverage of the transit, but thought it takes a long time to embrace events that accelerate at a high pace and appear to be incomprehensible today.
The new media has played a big role in the spread of protest movements. It is not Algerian television’s attempt to convey the protests that have characterized the streets of Algeria since March in a precedent that was considered the first of its kind. It is only a simulation of the openness of social media. In general, it was launched from the Internet network, which extended these movements an exceptional card in the polarization, dissemination and circulation of information and interaction with the demands and unite in the basic slogans: rejection of injustice and “dignity”, the defense of dignity, the face of tyranny and corruption, Equality, justice and equity. The social media contributed to the restoration of the Maghreb street and to the development of the protest behavior, which in most Maghreb countries abandoned its violent / brutal character. (Libya remains the exception that al-Qa’ida is credited in the Maghreb because the country, And the nature of the system of power that he ruled for decades and the interference of foreign parties and terrorist currents in its internal kitchen made the situation more complex).
Peaceful and peaceful slogans were created, and the organizers created forms to protect marches, demonstrations and protest rallies from any break-ups, unlike the social upheavals that were in the form of uprisings, such as the bread uprising in Tunisia in January 1984, the Komira uprising in Morocco in June 1981, In October 1988 in Algeria, and the uprisings of May 2010 in Libya and Mauritania in 2018 ..
The protesters themselves resorted to keeping up with the media for their protest. The event here is transported by blood and flesh without the need for a media industry, with the availability of smart phones and small and efficient computers, and the information entered the field of conflict between the news and its opposite, the picture and its opposite. The lack of professional professionalism and the harassment of journalists from the competition of new actors in the field of interest, technology has given to the general public what appeared to be special excellence for the elite from flying to the plane to take pictures and videos, and reading and writing to protest and beat R symbols and slogans, and gave the fans Hnajerha and her voice and her heart to others .. to take care of it themselves.
Social media have succeeded in bringing politics from the sky to the ground. Politics is no longer an elite and elite. These political leaders come with their white loads, such as cheese, elegant suits and neckties, to the microphone on television or in the large meeting rooms or in the public gatherings. A little water from time to time to describe their throats of any defect and leave their words of space to come out in full pride, and speak in the language of a scientist far from the mysteries of puzzles and mysteries and talismans, and guide these masses and carry them to Fradis love .. Their words remain resonant In the ears of the public, and publishes the words of the leader in the newspapers and go on the radio television, and comes from hanging footnotes on board, and extracts exciting parts of them to eat a valid martyrdom and give the letters of followers an authentic certificate of appreciation and loyalty ..
The street in all the Maghreb protests has become daily or every Friday as in Algeria or every Sunday as in Morocco with the February 20 Movement, a platform for expression and political action. Today, decision-making has become the street, everything is decided in public space and outside traditional institutions (parliament, Government, union, party, elected councils …), they are those “Almdwikh” They decide today .. The public space has become an arena “Agora” open, to express and protest and resolve conflict and scramble and to communicate demands, the public comes to the public street with their symbols, In their dreams, with their different affiliations and cultures, they create slogans, fashion and signs, and In the form of their dances and movements of their bodies and choral songs, as if we are in front of a mobile theater .. The public is the person who characterizes the roles and who is watching the representation and assess the performance .. As the elite watching from the windows and balconies high on this street full of movement, which regained its general character.